The cause-effect relationship between anterior open bite and atypical swallowing, two frequently associated conditions, is currently not completely understood. These conditions are often accompanied by speech disorders and represent a problem for both young patients and untreated adult patients. Treatment of these complex cases may be orthodontic, logopedic therapy or both. The purpose of this review is to compare the various types of treatment to determine their effectiveness in improving skeletal condition, normalisation of muscle activity, and temporal stability.
The present systematic review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) guidelines. In order to find the most appropriate articles for inclusion, an electronic and manual search was performed using PubMed and The Cochrane Library on May 23, 2021. No language restrictions or time limits were applied. Only human studies describing cases of patients in the developmental stage of dentition, i.e., deciduous dentition or mixed dentition with an anterior open bite related to a type of swallowing with tongue interposition between the arches, undergoing three different types of treatment (orthodontic only, myofunctional/logopedic only, combined) were included.
After careful analysis of the articles identified from the electronic and manual searches, 9 studies met the eligibility criteria. This review was written following a three-section structure, corresponding to three different types of treatment: orthodontic treatment, myofunctional treatment/logopaedic exercises, and combined treatment. Information analysed for each study included: number of participants, age of patients and stage of dentition, type of treatment used, duration of treatment and results of the study.
The most effective treatment in cases of anterior open bite associated with atypical swallowing is a combination of the traditional orthodontic therapy and myofunctional therapy. Further studies are needed to devise an effective and universal logopaedic protocol to be followed in these cases.
Vol.22 – n.4/2021
Harvard: N. Cenzato, L. Iannotti, C. Maspero (2021) "Open bite and atypical swallowing: orthodontic treatment, speech therapy or both? A literature review", European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 22(4), pp286-290. doi: 10.23804/ejpd.2021.22.04.5
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